Micronized Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a molecule which has been formulated for better oral bioavailability and absorption. It modulates inflammatory responses and responses of the immune system as a fatty acid amide.
PEA is produced endogenously within the human body, but it can also be found in the tissues of plants and animals. It was originally isolated in egg yolks and now is commonly isolated from soy lecithin (1)(2).
The micronized form of PEA provides superior absorption in two ways. Micronized PEA has a smaller particle size, which allows it to diffuse more efficiently on a cellular level. The smaller, micronized size also allows the particle to contain more energy for cellular distribution. The micronized formulation ensures a more effective delivery system than non-micronized PEA (3).
Palmitoylethanolamide Mode of Action
PEA consists of palmitic acid and ethanolamine. It is the hydrolyzed form of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-palmitamide, a crystalline structure isolated in soy lecithin. It is this hydrolyzed substance that accounts for its ability to promote a healthy response to inflammatory stressors which was first noted by scientists in 1957. PEA’s effects on the immune system have been studied since 1939 (1).
PEA can be synthesized within the human body from the abundant fatty acid palmitic acid, but it is not dependent or influenced by dietary consumption of fatty acids. Palmitic acid in the diet is derived from dairy products such as cheese and butter, palm tree oil, and animal meat products. However, increasing palmitic acid in the hope of increasing endogenous PEA synthesis will not be effective (1).
PEA restricts pro-inflammatory molecules, such as cytokines and interleukins and supports healthy immune system responses because of its action with the immune system and interleukins.
PEA has been studied for its immunological effects since its discovery in 1939 and remains one of the most researched and published compounds (more than 300 scientific papers have been written about it in just the past 50 years). The end of the twentieth century fostered the biggest expansion of research into PEA’s role in the endocannabinoid system (1).
PEA indirectly acts on the ECS (endocannabinoid system) within the human body. Consisting of lipid-based neurotransmitters and proteins designed to pair up with cannabinoid receptors in the peripheral nervous system and brain, the ECS is still being thoroughly studied. The ECS is believed to influence areas of development, memory, fertility, the sensation of discomfort, and the immune system. PEA activates receptors similar to the cannabinoid receptor CB2 but does not display any actual connection to the receptors CB1 or CB2. Instead, it functions through an entourage effect which results in the activation of the ECS (6)(7)(8)(9).
Pure Nootropics’ Micronized PEA capsules provide 400 mg per 1 capsule. Suggested use for adults is 1 capsule by mouth once daily, or as directed by your healthcare practitioner.
† For further information, please see references tab above.
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• Supports relief from occasional discomfort*
Hesselink JM, Hekker TA. Therapeutic utility of palmitoylethanolamide…: a case series. J Pain Res. 2012;5:437‐442. doi:10.2147/JPR.S32143
• Promotes healthy immune system*
Keppel Hesselink JM, de Boer T, Witkamp RF. Palmitoylethanolamide: A Natural Body-Own Anti-Inflammatory Agent… Int J Inflam. 2013;2013:151028. doi:10.1155/2013/151028
1. Hesselink, J. M. Keppel, et al. “Palmitoylethanolamide: A Natural Body-Own Anti-Inflammatory Agent…” International Journal of Inflammation, vol. 2013, no. 151028, 27 Aug. 2013, doi:https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/151028. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/iji/2013/151028/
2. Hesselink JMK (2013) Professor Rita Levi-Montalcini on Nerve Growth Factor, Mast Cells and Palmitoylethanolamide, an Endogenous Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Compound. J Pain Relief 2:114. doi: 10.4172/2167-0846.1000114. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/professor-rita-levi-montalcini-on-nerve-growth-factor-mast-cells-and-palmitoylethanolamide-an-endogenous-anti-inflammatory-and-analgesic-compound-2167-0846.1000114.php?aid=12372
3. Stochino Loi E, Pontis A, Cofelice V, Pirarba S, Fais MF, Daniilidis A, Melis I, Paoletti AM, Angioni S. Effect of ultramicronized-palmitoylethanolamide and co-micronized palmitoylethanolamide/polydatin…: An open-label pilot study. Int J Womens Health. 2019;11:443-449
4. “Interleukin.” Encylopaedia Brittanica, https://www.britannica.com/science/interleukin.
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6. Guida, F et al. “Palmitoylethanolamide induces microglia changes associated with increased migration and phagocytic activity: involvement of the CB2 receptor.” Scientific reports vol. 7,1 375. 23 Mar. 2017, doi:10.1038/s41598-017-00342-1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5428303/
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8. Bouaziz, Jerome, et al. “The Clinical Significance of Endocannabinoids…” Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, vol. 2, no. 1, 1 Apr. 2017, doi:https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2016.0035. https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/can.2016.0035
9. Davis, MP, et al. “The Potential Benefits of Palmitoylethanolamide in Palliation: A Qualitative Systematic Review.” Am J Hosp Palliat Care, vol. 36, no. 12, Dec. 2019, pp. 1134–1154., doi:10.1177/1049909119850807. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31113223
10. Keppel Hesselink JM, Costagliola C, Fakhry J, Kopsky DJ. Palmitoylethanolamide, a Natural Retinoprotectant… J Ophthalmol. 2015;2015:430596. doi:10.1155/2015/430596
11. Nestmann, Earle R. “Safety of micronized palmitoylethanolamide (microPEA): lack of toxicity and genotoxic potential.” Food science & nutrition vol. 5,2 292-309. 15 Jun. 2016, doi:10.1002/fsn3.392. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5332261/