Ginkgo Biloba Benefits
Ginkgo biloba leaf extract is commonly taken as a nootropic (or brain-enhancing) supplement and is used to promote healthy mental performance and general cognition health.
- Promotes Healthy Brain Function (ref)*
- Supports Memory (ref)(ref)*
- Can Support Antioxidant Balance (ref)*
- Supports Focus and Attention (ref)*
- Promotes General wellbeing (ref)*
- Supports a Healthy Cardiovascular System (ref)*
Ginkgo Biloba Mode of Action
Ginkgo Biloba leaves contain two phytochemical compounds that are believed to provide benefits: flavonoids (plant-based antioxidants) and terpenoids (1). The leaves of this tree contain as many as 20 different flavonoids (2).
The three most abundant flavonoids are quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin (1). Quercetin is a molecule that is one of the most abundant flavonoids found in most people’s diets (3). Quercetin also has anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy effects (3). Isorhamnetin may support a healthy cardiovascular system (5) and is commonly found in onions (6). Kaempferol, due to its capability of moderating oxidative stress, is showing promise in preliminary research regarding anti-oxidants (7).
The terpenoids have two forms: ginkgolides and bilobalides (1). Ginkgolides A, B, and C may help reduce inflammation (8)(9). Bilobalides are protective for the nervous system, especially for neurons (10) and Bilobalide may help reduce inflammation as well (11).
Ginkgo Biloba Dosage
Pure Nootropics’ Ginkgo Biloba capsules provide 120 mg of Ginkgo biloba Leaf Extract Standardized to a minimum of 24% Ginkgoflavonglycosides and 6% Terpene Lactones.
Suggested use recommended for this supplement varies from 120 mg to 240 mg per day for adults (1 to 2 capsules by mouth daily) with a meal, or as directed by your healthcare practitioner. Dosages can be split into two or more smaller doses over the course of a day and are taken with food to minimize the possibility of digestive side effects. Note: There are several pharmaceutical medications which interact with Gingko Biloba and should not be taken together. Please consult your healthcare practitioner if you are taking any medications prior to beginning supplementation with Gingko Biloba (12). Do not use if you are pregnant or nursing (13).
Ginkgo Biloba Side Effects and Toxicity
Although there are very few side effects reported for Ginkgo Biloba, occasional complaints involve minor gastrointestinal discomfort, headaches, dizziness, or heart palpitations with prolonged use. These side effects are more likely at higher doses.
For further information, please see our References Tab.
The references below are not meant to imply that any of our products treat, cure, or diagnose any disease or human condition. References to clinical studies and pre-clinical studies may use varying dosages and may not represent the dosages or subsequent results of products we sell; however, the references provided are pertinent to the subject supplement itself. References provided are intended for research and informational purposes only and do not represent the entire body of knowledge available on the subject(s) referenced; nor do they represent all possible outcomes associated with the subject(s) referenced including, but not limited to, adverse effects, precautions, or chemical interactions within the human body. The Content provided on this website is not intended to be a replacement for professional medical advice, treatment or diagnosis. Never ignore the advice of a medical professional or delay in attaining professional advice because of information or impressions you gather on this website. Choosing to rely on any information provided by the Content of this website is solely at your own risk. We encourage our audience to do their own research beyond the resources we have provided so your decision is as educated as possible.
• Promotes Healthy Brain Function*
Alarcos Cieza, Petra Maier, Ernst Pöppel. “Effects of Ginkgo biloba on mental functioning in healthy volunteers.” Archives of Medical Research, Volume 34, Issue 5, 2003. Pages 373-381,
ISSN 0188-4409, doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2003.05.001.
• Supports Memory*
Kaschel, R. “Specific Memory Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract EGb 761 in Middle-Aged Healthy Volunteers.” Phytomedicine, vol. 18, no. 14, 15 Nov. 2011, doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2011.06.021.
Baurle, P, et al. “Safety and Effectiveness of a Traditional Ginkgo Fresh Plant Extract – Results from a Clinical Trial.” Forsch Komplementmed, vol. 16, no. 3, June 2009, pp. 156-61., doi: 10.1159/000213167.
• Can Support Antioxidant Balance*
Wang, A, et al. “Ginkgo Biloba L. Extract…and Oxidative Stress.” Med Sci Monit, vol. 24, 14 May 2018, pp. 3159–3167., doi:10.12659/MSM.910718.
• Supports Focus and Attention*
Kennedy, DO, et al. “The Dose-Dependent Cognitive Effects of Acute Administration of Ginkgo Biloba to Healthy Young Volunteers.” Pyschopharmacology (Berl), vol. 151, no. 4, Sept. 2000, pp. 416–23., www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11026748.
• Promotes General wellbeing*
Cieza, A, et al. “Effects of Ginkgo Biloba on Mental Functioning in Healthy Volunteers.” Arch Med Res., vol. 34, no. 5, 2003, pp. 373–81., www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14602503.
• Supports a healthy cardiovascular system*
Mesquita, TRR, et al. “…Ginkgo Biloba Extract against Sustained β-Adrenergic Stimulation Occurs via Activation of M2/NO Pathway.” Front Pharmacol, vol. 8, no. 220, 2017, doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00220.
1. Dziwenka, Margitta, and Robert W. Coppock. Nutraceuticals Efficacy, Safety, and Toxicity. Elsevier, 2016, pages 681-691. Chapter 49 Ginkgo Biloba. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128021477000498.
2. “Analysis of Flavonoids in Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract.” Shimadzu Global Analytical and Measuring Instruments, www.shimadzu.com/an/hplc/support/lc/ap/n9j25k00000bfu20.html.
3. Li, Yao et al. “Quercetin…” Nutrients vol. 8,3 167. 15 Mar. 2016, doi:10.3390/nu8030167.
4. Lakhanpal P, Rai DK. Quercetin: A versatile flavonoid. Int J Med Update. 2007; 2:22–37.
5. Huang, Liqing, et al. “Protective Effects of Isorhamnetin…” Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol. 67, no. 6, June 2016, pp. 526–537., doi: 10.1097/FJC.0000000000000376.
6. Lee, J, and AE Mitchell. “Quercetin and Isorhamnetin Glycosides in Onion (Allium Cepa L.): Varietal Comparison, Physical Distribution, Coproduct Evaluation, and Long-Term Storage Stability.” J Agric Food Chem, vol. 59, no. 3, 18 Jan. 2011, pp. 857–63., doi:10.1021/jf1033587.
7. Chen, Allen Y and Yi Charlie Chen. “A review of the dietary flavonoid, kaempferol on human health…” Food chemistry vol. 138,4 (2012): 2099-107.
8. Zhang, M, et al. “Ginkgolide B…” BMC Complement Altern Med, vol. 18, no. 1, 20 July 2018, p. 220., doi:10.1186/s12906-018-2284-8.
9. Zhang, R, et al. “Ginkgolide C…” Front Pharmacol, vol. 9, no. 109, 21 Feb. 2018, doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.00109.
10. Chandrasekaran, K, et al. “…Effects of Bilobalide, a Component of Ginkgo Biloba Extract (EGb 761)…” Pharmacopsychiatry, vol. 36, no. 1, June 2003, doi:10.1055/s-2003-40447.
11. Goldie, M, and S Dolan. “Bilobalide, a Unique Constituent of Ginkgo Biloba…” Behav Pharmacol, vol. 24, no. 4, Aug. 2013, pp. 298–306., doi:10.1097/FBP.0b013e32836360ab.
12. “Ginkgo biloba,” Examine.com, published on 23 February 2014, last updated on 18 January 2019, https://examine.com/supplements/ginkgo-biloba/.
13. Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed). “Ginkgo”. Web. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2006-. Updated 2018 Dec 3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK501809/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30000868.