Pure Nootropics’ Optimal Choline Complex combines two products to provide superior results. The two main ingredients are CDP Choline and Alpha GPC Choline. Both CDP Choline and Alpha GPC are essential nutrients which are precursors to acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter in the parts of the brain that impact memory and learning, attention, and alertness–making it one of the most beneficial neurotransmitter compounds for overall cognitive function and brain health (1).
Optimal Choline Complex Benefits
1) CDP Choline (also known as citicoline) is an essential nutrient and precursor to creating the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (1).
Some benefits of CDP Choline include:
- Supports cognitive function in the elderly (ref)*
- May improve attentional performance (ref)(ref)*
- May limit excitotoxicity from glutamate activity (ref)*
- Promotes an increase in brain energy through improved mitochondrial functions (ref)*
2) Alpha GPC Choline, an abbreviation for Alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, is also a cholinergic compound found in the brain and a precursor to creating acetylcholine, functioning similarly to CDP Choline in acetylcholine synthesis. Alpha GPC provides some additional advantages by increasing acetylcholine in the central nervous system and seems to be the more efficient choline precursor because of its bioavailability (2).
Some benefits of Alpha GPC include:
- Supports cognitive function in the elderly with high doses more significantly than CDP Choline (ref)*
- May increase the production of the human growth hormone (HGH or somatropin) by working with the pituitary gland(ref)*
- Promotes increases in strength outputs during resistance training workouts (ref)*
- May enhance lower body muscle performance (ref)*
- May provide a steadier level of choline in the body than with CDP Choline (ref)*
Optimal Choline Complex Mode of Action
Citicoline and Alpha GPC are both involved as acetylcholine precursors. Both cholinergics combine to provide superior cognitive support in Optimal Choline Complex.
Citicoline can be produced from choline already present in the body, but choline’s ability to engage in cell membrane formation (phospholipid synthesis) is incomplete without first being converted to Citicoline. This constant demand for choline conversion to citicoline can mean that supplementing with Citicoline itself provides a boost for overall cell functioning (1).
Choline supports memory and cognitive function and can possibly maintain overall wellness in the brain when faced with cognitive decline (2). CDP Choline may improve attentional performance and focus (3,4). While CDP Choline is found in dietary sources such as animal-based products, eggs, whole grains, cruciferous vegetables, nuts and seeds, most people don’t get an adequate intake of choline in their diet (1).
Being a choline, Alpha GPC is found in many of the same dietary sources that contain CDP Choline (animal-based products, eggs, whole grains, cruciferous vegetables, nuts, and seeds) and is also a nutrient that is difficult to reach an adequate level from diet alone (1).
By working directly with the pituitary gland, Alpha GPC may increase the production of the human growth hormone (2). Preliminary trials relating to Alpha GPC administered to healthy volunteers prior to resistance exercise have shown promise in possibly increasing strength output during workouts, presumably due to its influence on HGH (4).
A clinical trial of Alpha GPC demonstrated that it may enhance lower body muscle performance related to isometric exercise (5).
Being a highly available form of choline, Alpha GPC may provide a steadier level in the body than supplementation with CDP (Citicoline). Levels increase slowly but remain elevated longer than with Citicoline in clinical trials (6).
Optimal Choline Complex Dosage
Pure Nootropics’ Optimal Choline Complex capsules provide 200 mg of Citicoline and 100 mg of Alpha GPC. Suggested use of Optimal Choline Complex capsules for adults is 1 capsule by mouth up to two times per day, with or without food, or as directed by your healthcare practitioner.
No daily value has been established for Alpha GPC or CDP (citicoline). However, RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) of Choline ranges depending on gender and age. *
- RDA for Choline for adult men over 18 is 550 mg/day (11)
- RDA for Choline for adult women is 400-425 mg/day (11)
(Women who are pregnant, lactating, and children under the age of 18 should seek medical advice from a healthcare provider regarding their RDA of Choline.)
Optimal Choline Complex Side Effects and Toxicity
Side effects from short-term use of Citicoline are generally mild. Studies conducted have mostly been on a short-term basis, and as such, the safety of long-term use is not known. It is generally well-tolerated, but as with all supplements and medications, some people may experience side effects. It is considered possibly safe and side effects could include bradycardia, tachycardia, vomiting, nausea, or hypotension (7)(13). Note: There may be pharmaceutical medications which interact with Citicoline and should not be taken together. Please consult your healthcare practitioner if you are taking any medications prior to beginning supplementation with Citicoline. Do not use if you are pregnant or nursing.
In both preclinical toxicological studies and clinical studies, research shows that toxicity derived from Citicoline is extremely difficult to achieve (8).
As with Citicoline, the safety of long-term use of Alpha GPC is not known. It is generally well-tolerated, but as with all supplements and medications, some people may experience side effects. It is considered possibly safe and side effects from Alpha GPC are mild and could include heartburn, nausea, vomiting, insomnia or excitation, and headache (9,10).
Toxicity information for Alpha GPC has been extrapolated from animal studies and demonstrates that the “No Observed Adverse Effect Level” (NOAEL) for humans was for a dose at least 150 mg/kg over a six-and-half month timespan (12).
For further information, please see our References Tab above.