Uridine (Uridine 5’-monophosphate) is a pyrimidine ribonucleoside nucleotide involved in phospholipid synthesis (1, 2).
Uridine Monophosphate Benefits
- Promotes increases in membrane phospholipid precursors (ref)*
Uridine Monophosphate is emerging as a subject of interest in the medical community, but thus far, human studies, except for the one referenced above, are scarce.
The following are examples of dynamics associated with Uridine Monophosphate through the animal model and may not be representative of the effects in the human body:
- Enhances synthesis of CDP-choline (ref)(ref)*
- Promotes anti-inflammatory activity (ref)*
- Promotes neural synapse formation (synaptogenesis) (ref)*
Uridine Monophosphate Mode of Action
Uridine Monophosphate (UMP) is a nucleotide and substrate in the synthesis of CDP-Choline and its final conversion to phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the Kennedy cycle. CDP-choline is an essential nutrient and precursor to creating the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter in the parts of the brain that impact memory and learning, attention, and alertness–making it one of the most beneficial neurotransmitter compounds for overall cognitive function and brain health (3, 4). Common dietary sources of choline are animal-based products, dairy products, whole grains, cruciferous vegetables, nuts, and seeds (5).
CDP-Choline is an integral part of phospholipid synthesis (cell membrane formation) and increases brain energy through improved mitochondrial functions by maintaining the levels of phospholipids in mitochondrial membranes, restoring ATPase activity and preventing the release of arachidonic acid from cell membranes (an oxidative stress to the body) (3).
After choline is taken into the body, Uridine triphosphate (UTP) joins with the nucleotide Cytidine to produce CTP. CTP and the choline in the body, either from supplemental or dietary sources, come together to form Phosphocholine. Phosphocholine is then synthesized into CDP-Choline and is finally synthesized into Phosphatidycholine (6).
Uridine in the plasma is the only precursor to CTP available (7). Uridine monophosphate can also be found in fermented beer and breast milk; it is also supplemented in human infant formulas. Organ meats and cruciferous vegetables are theorized also to contain Uridine (4). After infancy, it is no longer consumed through mother’s milk or fortified formula but synthesized in the liver (7).
Uridine Triphosphate is necessary for the formation of Uridine Monophosphate. Uridine Triphosphate (UTP) phosphorylates Uridine and the nucleotide Cytidine together to form Uridine Monophosphate (UMP) (8). Uridine Monophosphate (UMP) is present in cellular cytoplasms, extracellular space, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, the lysosome, mitochondria, and the nucleus (1).
Uridine benefits neural synaptic function and promotes the creation of membranes and neuronal synapses and dendritic spines through its role in providing phosphatidylcholine, the final step in the choline pathway. As a result of increasing the phosphatidylcholine level in the brain (PC), neurons in the cholinergic pathway use the choline stored inside PC to synthesize Acetylcholine directly and increases the level of acetylcholine available in the brain (9).
Additionally, animal research has shown that the fish oil fatty acid DHA can increase levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the brain by 30% when paired with Uridine (4).
Uridine Monophosphate Dosage
Pure Nootropics’ Uridine Monophosphate Capsules provide 250 mg per 1 capsule. Suggested use for adults is 2 capsules by mouth daily, or as recommended by your healthcare practitioner.
Uridine Monophosphate Side Effects and Toxicity
No adverse events were reported in the first clinical human study for Uridine Monophosphate (10).
As Uridine Monophosphate is synthesized in the liver, care must be taken when supplementing if you have any liver conditions.
If you are taking any medications, please consult your healthcare practitioner before beginning supplementation with Uridine Monophosphate.
For further information, please see our References Tab above.